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Ann M

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April 26

Before the reform of the General Roman Calendar this was the feast of Sts. Cletus and Marcellinus. St. Cletus, who is probably identical with St. Anacletus (his feast moved from July 13 before 1961), figures in the list of Popes as the second successor of St. Peter, A.D. 76-88. St. Marcellinus governed the Church two centuries later, from A.D. 296 to 304, during the terrible Diocletian persecution.

St. Cletus I
Emperor Vespasian reigned in Rome when Cletus assumed leadership of the Church. His specific responsibilities, like those of his predecessor Linus, can only be surmised because a monarchial episcopate had not yet emerged in Rome. Little is known of Cletus, perhaps due to the confusion over his name. Some historians refer to him as Anacletus or, more correctly, Anencletus, which is a Greek adjective meaning "blameless". There is, however, no doubt that he is recognized as the as the third successor and is commemorated in the ancient canon of the Mass.

According to tradition, he appointed twenty-five presbyters for Rome and erected a shrine over the burial place of Peter. He is said to have died a martyr, in the twelfth year of the reign of Emperor Domitian, and was buried on the Vatican Hill. — The Popes: A Papal History, J.V. Bartlett

St. Marcellinus
St. Marcellinus was Pope during the Diocletian persecution (296-304). With wise forethought he ordered large rooms to be constructed in the catacombs for liturgical use. Such a chamber in the catacomb of Callistus still recalls his action. According to one ancient account (certainly erroneous), this pope strewed incense before the gods when arrested during the persecution, but later atoned for his weakness by a glorious martyrdom. His grave in the catacomb of Priscilla was an object of highest honor. — The Church's Year of Grace, Pius Parsch
 
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Ann M

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April 22

Before the reform of the Roman Calendar today was the feast of Sts. Soter and Caius. Soter succeeded Anicetus as Pope in 166, and died a martyr in 175, under the emperor Marcus Aurelius. Caius, whose relics are preserved at the sanctuary of St. Silvester in Rome, governed the Church a century later and died on April 22, 296. The popes of the first centuries suffered the heavy anxiety of the persecutions which continually threatened their flocks; the pontificate of Caius, however, was marked by a long period of peace, some ten years before the terrible persecution under Diocletian.

St. Soter
St. Soter, the successor to Pope Anicetus, died a martyr's death in 175. He was noted for his kindness to certain Greeks who had been condemned to the mines because of their faith in Christ. When he ascended the chair of Peter he forbade consecrated virgins to touch the sacred vessels and palls, or to carry censers in church. He also obliged the faithful, except those in mortal sin, to receive holy Communion on Maundy Thursday. Soter is the author of a letter to the Corinthians.

St. Caius
St. Caius (pope from 283 to 296) was closely related to the Emperor Diocletian. So that he might live to serve the faithful, he remained in concealment a long time and would not leave Rome. Ordinarily it was in the catacombs that he hid, and there he celebrated the holy mysteries and instructed many pagans. It was Pope Caius who decreed (according to the false Decretals) that the following steps must precede consecration to the episcopate: porter, lector, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon, deacon, and priest. He died a natural death and was buried in the catacomb of Callistus on April 22. St. Susanna was his niece. Pope Urban VIII revived his memory in Rome by restoring his church, naming him as its patron saint, raising it to the rank of a station, and enriching it with the saint's relics.
 
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Ann M

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Paul S said:
And name all the degrees of Holy Orders and the Pope who set them up (he's one of the four).

What are the "degrees" of Holy Orders?

There are three degrees to this sacrament. The fullness of Holy Orders is expressed in Episcopal ordination (being ordained a bishop) which is equivalent to being an apostle almost (i.e. apostolic succession). Then there is the ordination of priests who are the co-workers of the bishops and the lowest order is of deacons. They are called simply to serve, but are still given that indelible special character.


As I keep coming across references to the Council of Trent, I threefore assume that the Pope in question Is Pope Pius V.
 
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Paul S

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Ann M said:
What are the "degrees" of Holy Orders?

There are three degrees to this sacrament. The fullness of Holy Orders is expressed in Episcopal ordination (being ordained a bishop) which is equivalent to being an apostle almost (i.e. apostolic succession). Then there is the ordination of priests who are the co-workers of the bishops and the lowest order is of deacons. They are called simply to serve, but are still given that indelible special character.


As I keep coming across references to the Council of Trent, I threefore assume that the Pope in question Is Pope Pius V.

Pope St. Pius V's feast in is May, so he doesn't count as one of the four.

It's in the information you already posted.

In the current rite of ordination, deacon is the lowest order, but not in the traditional rite.
 
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Paul S

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Ann M said:
A quick question for you.

Pope John Paul I was only in office for one month before he passed away, but in that time he made one significant, though little noted, change in the life of the Church. Do you know what is was?

He switched from the "royal we" to the less formal "I", and he was also the first pope to forego the traditional Papal Coronation ceremony with its use of the Papal Tiara.

Perhaps our next pope will bring it back.
 
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Ann M

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Paul S said:
Pope St. Pius V's feast in is May, so he doesn't count as one of the four.

It's in the information you already posted.

In the current rite of ordination, deacon is the lowest order, but not in the traditional rite.
:doh:

It was Pope Caius who decreed (according to the false Decretals) that the following steps must precede consecration to the episcopate: porter, lector, exorcist, acolyte, subdeacon, deacon, and priest.
 
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Ann M

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Paul S said:
He switched from the "royal we" to the less formal "I", and he was also the first pope to forego the traditional Papal Coronation ceremony with its use of the Papal Tiara.

Perhaps our next pope will bring it back.

See, so much smarter than I am, although you did leave the part about the throne out! :)
 
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Ann M

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And I'm going to assume that you don't want figures on this one?

Caius was pope for twelve years, four months, and seven days, from 17 December, 283, to 22 April, 296, according to the Liberian catalogue (Harnack, Chronol., I, 155, after Lipsius and Lightfoot); Eusebius is wrong in giving him fifteen years. He is mentioned in the fourth-century "Depositio Episcoporum" (therefore not as a martyr): X kl maii Caii in Callisti. He was buried in the chapel of the popes in that cemetary. Nothing whatever is known of his life. He lived in the time of peace before the last great persecution.
 
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Paul S

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Ann M said:
Okay, let's pretend that my brain is on holidays, can you please explain what you mean here? :)

You can find the answer to the ordination question in the Divine Office. More specifically, the Second Nocturn.
 
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Ann M

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Paul S said:
You can find the answer to the ordination question in the Divine Office. More specifically, the Second Nocturn.

:scratch: Nope, it's still on holidays....

Second Nocturn
Psalm 8. Dómine, Dóminus noster

Man, the crown of creation

This majestic hymn is a song of gratitude to God the Creator for having exalted his lowly creature, man. God's Name shines out in unmistakable splendour on the brow of a child, in the stars of heaven, in man, the king of his creation.

Majesty of God

Dómine, Dóminus noster, * quam admirábile est nomen tuum in univérsa terra!
2 Quóniam eleváta est magnificéntia tua, * super cælos.


O LORD our Governour, how excellent is thy Name in all the world; * thou hast set thy glory above the heavens!


Glory of heaven

3 Ex ore infántium et lacténtium perfecísti laudem propter inimícos tuos, * ut déstruas inimícum et ultórem.
4 Quóniam vidébo cælos tuos, ópera digitórum tuórum: * lunam et stellas, quæ tu fundásti.
5 Quid est homo quod memor es ejus? * aut fílius hóminis, quóniam vísitas eum?


2 Out of the mouth of very babes and sucklings hast thou ordained strength, because of thine enemies, * that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger.
3 For I will consider thy heavens, even the works of thy fingers; * the moon and the stars which thou hast ordained;
4 What is man, that thou art mindful of him? * and the son of man, that thou visitest him?

Glory of man

6 Minuísti eum paulo minus ab Angelis, glória et honóre coronásti eum: * et constituísti eum super ópera mánuum tuárum.
7 Omnia subjecísti sub pédibus ejus, * oves et boves univérsas : ínsuper et pécora campi.
8 Vólucres cæli, et pisces maris, * qui perámbulant sémitas maris.


5 Thou madest him lower than the Angels, * to crown him with glory and worship.
6 Thou makest him to have dominion of the works of thy hands; * and thou hast put all things in subjection under his feet :
7 All sheep and oxen; * yea, and the beasts of the field;
8 The fowls of the air, and the fishes of the sea; * and whatsoever walketh through the paths of the seas.

Finale

9 Dómine, Dóminus noster, * quam admirábile est nomen tuum in univérsa terra!


9 O LORD our Governour, * how excellent is thy Name in all the world!
Psalm 9a
Thanksgiving for victory
Christ is victorious in his Resurrection and in the Church.

Here is an appropriate song of victory and thanksgiving for the Church to sing on Sunday. By his dying, Christ has overcome the devil and given us a pledge of the victory. He will win in the Church and in our soul. The enemies spoken of are not the forces of earth, but those of hell. Nor must we think of an earthly victory. Rather, our victory as Christians will be like that of Christ, who seemed to be defeated in the eyes of men.

Psalm 9. i. Confitébor tibi

Theme: Thanksgiving

Confitébor tibi, Dómine, in toto corde meo: * narrábo ómnia mirabília tua.
2 Lætábor et exsultábo in te: * psallam nómini tuo, Altíssime.


I WILL give thanks unto thee, O LORD, with my whole heart; * I will speak of all thy marvellous works.
2 I will be glad and rejoice in thee; * yea, my songs will I make of thy Name, O thou Most Highest.

First motive: God has judged our enemies

3 In converténdo inimícum meum retrórsum: * infirmabúntur, et períbunt a fácie tua.
4 Quóniam fecísti judícium meum et causam meam: * sedísti super thronum, qui júdicas justítiam.
5 Increpásti Gentes, et périit impius: * nomen eórum delésti in ætérnum, et in sæculum sæculi.
6 Inimíci defecérunt frámeæ in finem: * et civitátes eórum destruxisti.


3 While mine enemies are driven back, * they shall fall and perish at thy presence.
4 For thou hast maintained my right and my cause; * thou art set in the throne that judgest right.
5 Thou hast rebuked the heathen, and destroyed the ungodly; * thou hast put out their name for ever and ever.
6 O thou enemy, destructions are come to a perpetual end; * even as the cities which thou hast destroyed; their memorial is perished with them.

Second motive: God protects his own

7 Périit memória eórum cum sónitu: * et Dóminus in ætérnum pérmanet.
8 Parávit in judício thronum suum: * et ipse judicábit orbem terræ in æquitáte, judicábit pópulos in justítia.
9 Et factus est Dóminus refúgium páuperi: * adjútor in opportunitátibus, in tribulatióne.
10 Et sperent in te qui novérunt nomen tuum: * quóniam non dereliquísti quæréntes te, Dómine.


7 But the LORD shall endure for ever; * he hath also prepared his seat for judgement.
8 For he shall judge the world in righteousness, * and minister true judgement unto the people.
9 The LORD also will be a defence for the oppressed, * even a refuge in due time of trouble.
10 And they that know thy Name will put their trust in thee; * for thou, LORD, hast never failed them that seek thee.

Psalm 9. ii. Psállite Domino

Thanks and praise be unto him

11 Psállite Dómino, qui hábitat in Sion: * annuntiáte inter Gentes stúdia ejus:
12 Quóniam requírens sánguinem eórum recordátus est: * non est oblítus clamórem páuperum.
13 Miserére mei, Dómine: * vide humilitátem meam de inimícis meis.
14 Qui exáltas me de portis mortis, * ut annúntiem omnes laudatiónes tuas in portis fíliæ Sion.


11 O PRAISE the LORD which dwelleth in Sion; * shew the people of his doings.
12 For when he maketh inquisition for blood, he remembereth them, * and forgetteth not the complaint of the poor.
13 Have mercy upon me, O Lord; consider the trouble which I suffer of them that hate me, * thou that liftest me up from the gates of death;
14 That I may shew all thy praises within the ports of the daughter of Sion: * I will rejoice in thy salvation.

Above all, for punishing our enemies

15 Exsultábo in salutári tuo: * infíxæ sunt Gentes in intéritu, quem fecérunt.
16 In láqueo isto, quem abscondérunt, * comprehénsus est pes eórum.
17 Cognoscétur Dóminus judícia fáciens: * in opéribus mánuum suárum comprehénsus est peccátor.
18 Convertántur peccatóres in inférnum, * omnes Gentes quæ obliviscúntur Deum.
19 Quóniam non in finem oblívio erit páuperis: * patiéntia páuperum non períbit in finem.


15 The heathen are sunk down in the pit that they made; * in the same net which they hid privily is their foot taken.
16 The LORD is known to execute judgement; * the ungodly is trapped in the work of his own hands.
17 The wicked shall be turned into hell, * and all the people that forget God.
18 For the poor shall not alway be forgotten; * the patient abiding of the meek shall not perish for ever.

Finale

20 Exsúrge, Dómine, non confortétur homo: * judicéntur Gentes in conspéctu tuo.
21 Constítue, Dómine, legislatórem super eos: * ut sciant Gentes quóniam hómines sunt.


19 Up, LORD, and let not man have the upper hand; * let the heathen be judged in thy sight.
20 Put them in fear, O LORD, * that the heathen may know themselves to be but men.
 
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Ann M

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:doh: check the right dates :blush: !

Cletus Romanus, patre Æmiliáno, de regióne quinta, e vico Patricio, imperatóribus Vespasiáno et Tito Ecclésiam gubernávit. Is ex præcépto Principis Apostolórum in Urbe viginti quinque presbyteros ordinávit. Primus in litteris verbis illis usus est : Salútem et apostolicam benedictiónem. Qui, Ecclésia optime constituta, cum ei præfuísset annos duodecim, menses septem, dies duos, Domitiáno imperatóre, secunda post Nerónem persecutióne, martyrio corónatus est, et in Vaticano juxta corpus beáti Petri sepúltus.


Cletus was a Roman, the son of Aemilian, of the Fifth Region of the City, and the street called Noble. He ruled the Church in the time of the Emperors Vespasian and Titus. In accordance with the precept of the Prince of the Apostles he ordained twenty-five priests for the City. He was the first Pope who made use in his letters of the phrase, Health and Apostolic Benediction. When he had ruled the Church for twelve years, seven months, and two days, and brought it into an excellent state of order, in the reign of the Emperor Domitian, and the second persecution since the time of Nero, he was crowned with martyrdom, and buried on the Vatican mount, hard by the body of blessed Peter.
 
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Ann M

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:) Now we're getting it!

Marcellinus Romanus, ab anno ducentésimo nonagesimo sexto ad annum trecentésimum quartum in immani imperatóris Diocletiáni persecutióne Ecclésiæ præfuit. Multas pértulit angustias ob ímprobam eórum severitátem, qui eum redarguébant de nimia indulgéntia erga lapsos in idololatríam, quæque causa fuit, ut per calumniam infamátus fúerit, quasi thus idolis adhibuísset. Verum hic beátus Pontifex in confessióne fidei, una cum tribus aliis Christiánis, Cláudio, Cyrino et Antonino, cápite plexus est. Quorum projecta corpora, cum triginta sex dies jussu imperatóris sepultúra caruissent, beátus Marcellus a sancto Petro in somnis admónitus, cum presbyteris et diáconis, hymnis et lumínibus adhíbitis, honorifice sepelienda curávit in cœmeterio Priscillæ via Salaria. Réxit Ecclésiam annos septem, menses undecim, dies viginti tres ; quo témpore fecit ordinatiónes duas mense Decembri, quibus creávit presbyteros quatuor, episcopos per diversa loca quinque.


Marcellinus was a Roman ; he ruled the Church from the year 296 to the year 304, during the savage persecution which was ordered by the Emperor Diocletian. He suffered through the false severity of those who blamed him as being too indulgent toward them who had fallen into idolatry, and for this reason also hath been slandered to the effect that he himself burnt incense to idols ; but this blessed Pope, on account of his confession of the faith, was put to death along with three other Christians, whose names are Claudius, Cyrinus and Antoninus. At the command of the Emperor their bodies were cast out unburied, and and lay so for thirty-six days. At the end of that time St. Peter appeared in a dream to Blessed Marcellus, and in obedience to his command the said Marcellus went with certain priests and deacons, singing hymns, and carrying lights, and buried these four bodies honourably in the Cemetery of Priscilla upon the Salarian Way. Marcellinus ruled the Church for seven years, eleven months, and twenty-three days. During this time he held two Advent ordinations, and ordained at them four priests, and five bishops for divers Sees.
 
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Ann M

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:scratch: Back to confused, as Aptil 17, tells us:-

St. Anicetus


Pope and MartyrAnicetus Syrus, imperatóre Marco Aurelio Antonino, præfuit Ecclésiæ. Decrevit ne clerici comam nutrirent. Quinquies mense Decembri ordinávit presbyteros decem et septem, diaconos quatuor, episcopos per diversa loca novem. Vixit in pontificatu annos octo, menses octo, dies viginti quatuor. Propter Christi fidem martyrio corónatus, sepúltus est via Appia in cœmeterio, quod póstea Callísti appellátum est, décimo quinto Kalendas Majas.


Anicetus was a Syrian who ruled the Church in the time of the Emperor Marcus Aurélius Antoninus. It was his ordinance which forbade the clergy to grow long hair. He held five December ordinations wherein he ordained seventeen priests, four deacons, and nine bishops for divers sees. He lived as Pope eight years, eight months, and twenty-four days. He bore witness to his faith in Christ even unto blood, and, being crowned on the seventeenth day of April, was buried upon the Appian Way in the Cemetery which has since been called that of St. Calixtus.



:scratch: was he the martyr I was missing perchance?
 
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