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King David's (sketchy) background

levnishbar

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What was the background, childhood and upbringing of David the Shepherd-boy, described in the Bible as a man after God's own heart? 1 Samuel 13:14

Linked is a Jewish story about him, sourced from the Midrashim. Please note: The Midrashim are not Christian canon and whatever does not come from the Bible should be assumed to be a tale, not necessarily true. Therefore read it with a pinch of salt and with prayer for guidance beforehand, otherwise jump to the summary that follows:

https://www.chabad.org/theJewishWoman/article_cdo/aid/280331/jewish/Nitzevet-Mother-of-David.htm

Summary:
The tale goes that David was considered to be an illegitimate son by his brothers and father, and perhaps even himself. This is supported in Scripture* by (*I am reading from the Hebrew Bible so some verse numbers may be +/- a few numbers):

Psalms 51:7 Behold, with iniquity I was formed, and with sin my mother conceived me.

How is it possible for a mother to conceive her youngest son in sin but not the older ones? Two possible explanations are by adultery, or the mistaken assumption of the child being of an adulterous relationship.

Psalms 69:9 I was strange to my brothers, and alien to the sons of my mother.

In Hebrew, the word "strange" (to his brothers) is "מוּזָר" which shares the same root as the rude Hebrew word for illegitimate son (ממזר).

The consequences of being such in Judaism is terrible. Deuteronomy 23:3 forbids him, or his descendants up to the tenth generation, from entering assembly with the Lord. A death penalty is even possible upon him, and no rabbi will knowingly officiate the wedding of such a person. It is an ethical problem because the child is paying for the sins of the parents.

1 Samuel 16:11 And Samuel said to Jesse, "Are these all the young men?" And he said, "The youngest still remains, and behold, he is tending the sheep." And Samuel said to Jesse, "Send and bring him, for we shall not sit down until he comes here."

After exhausting Jesse's ostensible sons, Samuel did not ask Jesse if these were all his sons. Likewise, Jesse did not reply that the last one remaining was not afforded the status of a son. The Hebrew word Samuel used was youths (הַנְּעָרִים֒) and the word Jesse used for youngest (הַקָּטָ֔ן) has a double meaning and can also refer to the smallest one, perhaps by size or apparent spiritual stature....for being the family's illegitimate son.

Here we have an account of David's elder brother lashing out at him, apparently undeservedly despite him coming to bring them food from their father:
1 Samuel 17:28 And Eliab, his eldest brother, heard when he spoke to the men, and Eliab's wrath was kindled against David, and he said, "Why have you come down? With whom have you left those few sheep in the desert? I know your impetuousness, and the evil of your heart, for you have come down in order to see the war."

Despite all this, we know the rest of the story, David was anointed, he triumphs over Goliath, is persecuted by King Saul and eventually becomes King of Israel despite all his problems and enemies.

Psalms 118:22 The stone that the builders rejected became a cornerstone.
The word for builders in Hebrew (הַבּוֹנִ֑ים) again has the same root with the word sons (בנים). This is also a Messianic allusion to Yeshua who was rejected by most of his wider Jewish family.

David is a hero of mine. Like some other champions in the Bible (e.g. Joseph, Moses, Gideon), he was also an unlikely hero. Rejected by his brothers, assumed by almost everyone to be a terrible person, he had a right heart and standing with the Lord, who then elevated Him to be King over his people. Like all of us, he was still a flawed follower of God, made his mistakes but quickly repented over them.

So the moral of the story is this: whatever the reality of our place now, however difficult our circumstances....if our heart is right with God, He who elevated the lowest of the low in ancient Israel (the illegitimate son) to become King, is also able to lift us out of the mire and redeem us.

Shabbat shalom.
 
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Lulav

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Is there anywhere you know of that Saul comments on his parentage?

Psalms 51:7 Behold, with iniquity I was formed, and with sin my mother conceived me.

How is it possible for a mother to conceive her youngest son in sin but not the older ones?​

But is he even speaking or referencing his siblings? Aren't we all covered in the penalty of the original sin thus the need to be born again?
 
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Lulav

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I guess it's implied

1Then came David to Nob to Ahimelech the priest: and Ahimelech was afraid at the meeting of David, and said unto him, Why art thou alone, and no man with thee?
2And David said unto Ahimelech the priest, The king hath commanded me a business, and hath said unto me, Let no man know any thing of the business whereabout I send thee, and what I have commanded thee: and I have appointed my servants to such and such a place.
3Now therefore what is under thine hand? give me five loaves of bread in mine hand, or what there is present. 4And the priest answered David, and said, There is no common bread under mine hand, but there is hallowed bread; if the young men have kept themselves at least from women.
5
And David answered the priest, and said unto him, Of a truth women have been kept from us about these three days, since I came out, and the vessels of the young men are holy, and the bread is in a manner common, yea, though it were sanctified this day in the vessel.
6So the priest gave him hallowed bread: for there was no bread there but the shewbread, that was taken from before the LORD, to put hot bread in the day when it was taken away.

There were 12 loaves of bread but David only asked for five.

That could indicate that there were 4 other young men with him.

It also brings to mind the miracle of the loaves and fishes.

From Matt 12
3 But he said unto them, Have ye not read what David did, when he was an hungred, and they that were with him; 4 How he entered into the house of God, and did eat the shewbread, which was not lawful for him to eat, neither for them which were with him, but only for the priests?
 
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