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Gaffs in UBS Greek text (case by case): #1 HAPLOGRAPHY

Discussion in 'Exposition & Bible Study' started by Nazaroo, Mar 15, 2006.

  1. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    Deliberate Changes versus Accidental Alterations

    Deliberate alterations to the text can be a result of common theological influences operating independantly, or they can be simply imported artificially between text-types and genealogical lines. Thus they are unreliable indicators of either text-type or genealogical dependance, even when they are perpetuated by copying.


    On the other hand, accidental errors can indeed be used to show genealogical dependance, and classify manuscripts into text-types, if these errors are of a kind that would be perpetuated. As noted above, the peculiar error of haplography is just the ideal type of error to establish genealogical relationships and offer stable features of a text-type. An error of haplography (accidental omission) is likely to be copied unnoticed, especially if the material dropped has no special value or theological impact. It has the further advantage of being rather easy to spot and having unambiguous features: the cases of use will have a combination of likely Homoioarcton, Homoioteleuton, plus a lack of theological or doctrinal signficance to the omitted material.

    Haplography in Mark

    Of the some 35 places in Mark where the critical Greek text departs from the traditional text significantly, deleting whole or half verses, and where modern Bibles follow them, almost a third are obvious cases of haplography. The manuscript evidence is also just what we would expect and require for these cases to be clinching:

    Mark 6:33-34 (original / traditional text)



    KΑI ΕIΔON ΑΥTOΥΣ ΥΠΑΓONTΑΣ
    KΑI ΕΠΕΓNΩΣΑN ΠOΛΛOI
    KΑI ΠΕZH ΑΠO ΠΑΣΩN TΩN
    ΠOΛΕΩN ΣΥNΕΔΡΑMON ΕKΕI
    KΑI ΠΡOHΛΘON ΑΥTOΥΣ
    KΑI ΣΥNHΛΘON ΠΡOΣ ΑΥT
    ON
    KΑI ΕΞΕΛΘΩN ΕIΔΕN ΠOΛΥN OXΛ
    ON
    KΑI ΕΣΠΛΑΓXNIΣΘH ΕΠ ΑΥTOΥΣ
    OTI HΣΑN ΩΣ ΠΡOΒΑTΑ MH ΕXONTΑ ΠOIMΕNΑ
    KΑI HΡΞΑTO ΔIΔΑΣKΕIN ΑΥTOΥΣ ΠOΛΛΑ

    Now many saw them going, and knew them,
    and they ran there on foot from all the towns,
    and got there ahead of them,
    and they gathered together to Him,
    and exiting (the boat) he saw a great throng,
    and he had compassion on them,
    because they were like sheep without a shepherd;
    and he began to teach them many things.


    the 4th line (underlined) is dropped by Aleph, B, critical Greek texts, and modern versions.

    Here both a similar beginning and ending of two consecutive lines has caused the scribe's eye to slip and drop a line from the ancestor of Vaticanus and Sinaiticus. These two manuscripts stand alone (along with the 'usual suspects', a handful of lesser Alexandrian witnesses), against the overwhelming evidence for inclusion of the verses from all other text-types and witnesses (early fathers, versions etc.)

    Yet moronically, almost all modern versions follow the painfully obvious error of the 'two oldest and bestest manuscripts' against all other textual evidence, and common sense.

    Nothing is really lost by the adoption of either reading (with or without the line), except for the reputation of the Alexandrian scribes, and the credibility of modern Bible editors.

    Mark 8:26-27 (traditional text)

    KΑI ΑΠΕΣTΕIΛΕN ΑΥTON ΕIΣ OIKON ΑΥTOΥ ΛΕΓΩN
    MHΔΕ Ε
    IΣ THN KΩMHN ΕIΣΕΛΘHΣ
    MHΔΕΕIΠHΣ TINI EN TH KΩMH
    KΑI ΕΞHΛΘΕN O IHΣOΥΣ KΑI OI MΑΘHTΑI ΑΥTOΥ
    ΕIΣ TΑΣ KΩMΑΣ KΑIΣΑΡΕIΑΣ THΣ ΦIΛIΠΠOΥ

    And he sent him away to his home, saying,
    "neither enter the town,
    Nor tell anyone in the town."
    And Jesus went on with his disciples,
    to the villages of Caesare'a Philip'pi;

    Here again, the scribe copies the first line beginning with 'MHΔΕ', then looking back at his exemplar fails to notice TWO lines starting with 'MHΔΕ' and continues from 'KΑI'. The similar content in both lines doesn't help either.

    Once again, instead of noting the obvious, modern versions follow their blind guides and the critical text.

    Mark 9:49-50 (traditional text)

    ΠΑΣ ΓΑΡ ΠΥΡI ΑΛIΣΘHΣΕTΑI
    KΑI ΠΑΣA ΘΥΣIΑ ΕΛI ΑΛIΣΘHΣΕTΑI
    KΑΛON TO ΑΛΑΣ ΕΑN ΔΕ TO ΑΛΑΣ ΑNΑΛON ΓΕNHTΑI
    ΕN TINI ΑΥTO ΑΡTΥΣΕTΕ ΕXΕTΕ
    ΕN ΕΑΥTOIΣ ΑΛΑ KΑI ΕIΡHNΕΥΕTΕ ΕN ΑΛΛHΛOIΣ

    For everyone will besalted with fire
    And every sacrifice salted with salt.
    Salt is good;
    but if the salt has lost its saltness,
    how will you season it?
    Have salt in yourselves,
    and be at peace with one another."

    Here we have the alternate error, the similar ending of a line rather than beginning. The result is the same: loss of a line, and the same manuscripts, critics, and modern editions follow along right into a ditch.

    Mark 10:7 (Traditional text)

    ΕNΕKΕN TOΥTOΥ KΑTΑΛΕIΨΕI ΑNΘΡΩΠOΣ
    TON ΠΑTΕΡΑ ΑΥTOΥ KΑI THN MHTΕΡΑ
    KΑI ΠΡOΣKOΛΛHΘHΣΕTΑI ΠΡOΣ THN ΓΥNΑIKΑ ΑΥTOΥ

    KΑIΕΣONTΑI OI ΔΥO ΕIΣ ΣΑΡKΑ MIΑN
    ΩΣTΕ OΥKΕTI ΕIΣIN ΔΥO ΑΛΛΑ MIΑ ΣΑΡΞ

    'For this reason a man shall leave his father and mother
    and be joined to his wife,
    and the two shall become one flesh.'
    So they are no longer two but one flesh.

    There you have it: similar beginnings of line again, resulting in the loss of the first line this time. The Alexandrian manuscripts, critics and modern versions numbly follow.

     
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  2. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    Mark 11:8

    KΑI ΠOΛΛOI TΑ IMΑTIΑ ΑΥTΩN
    ΕΣTΡΩΣΑN ΕIΣ THN OΔON
    ΑΛΛOI ΔΕ ΣTOIΒΑΔΑΣ KΥΨΑNTΕΣ ΕK TΩN ΑΓΡΩN
    KΑI
    ΕΣTΡΩNNΥON ΕIΣ THN OΔON
    KΑI OI ΠΡOΑΓONTΕΣ
    KΑI OI ΑKOΛOΥΘOΥNTΕΣ
    ΕKΡΑZON ΩΣΑNNΑ ΕΥΛOΓHMΕNOΣ
    O ΕΡXOMΕNOΣ ΕN ONOMΑTI KΥΡIOΥ

    And many spread their
    garments on the road,
    and others spread leafy branches
    which they had cut from the fields
    and spread them on the road.
    And those who went before
    and those who followed cried out,
    "Hosanna! Blessed is he

    who comes in the name of the Lord!

    Its easy to see here how the scribe, already fatigued by having to work with an 'inferior' Byzantine text-type, went completely cross-eyed and lost a line out of this cluster.

    Again, nobody in the Alexandrian stream was going to pick up the pieces here, And we could have predicted that critics would just close their eyes and hope the shorter text would at least remove some of the headache.

    Modern versions follow like donkeys tracking a retreating carrot on the end of a stick.

    Mark 12:33 (traditional text)

    KΑI TO ΑΓΑΠΑN ΑΥTON ΕΞ OΛHΣ THΣ KΑΡΔIΑΣ
    KΑI ΕΞ OΛHΣ THΣ ΣΥNΕΣΕΩΣ
    KΑI ΕΞ OΛHΣ THΣ
    ΨΥXH
    KΑI ΕΞ OΛHΣ THΣ IΣXΥOΣ
    KΑI TO ΑΓΑΠΑN TON ΠΛHΣION
    ΩΣ ΕΑΥTON ΠΕΡIΣΣOTΕΡON ΕΣTIN
    ΠΑNTΩN TΩN OΛOKΑΥTΩMΑTΩN KΑI ΘΥΣIΩN

    and to love him with all the heart,
    and with all the understanding,
    and with all the soul,
    and with all the strength,
    and to love one's neighbour as oneself,
    is much more than all whole burnt offerings and sacrifices."


    Of course you didn't expect an Alexandrian scribe to get this one right did you?

    Well, this is an obvious accident waiting to happen. And it did: to the whole Alexandrian geneaological tree. But not a single monkey climbed back up to replace the lost floorboard in the clubhouse. And yet of all places, this would have been the one we would have hoped the modern versions would dare not follow brain-dead critics. And yet they did, right into the land of Mordor.
    Apparently 'souls' are an expendable item in Egypt.


    Mark 14:9

    HΡΞΑNTO ΛΥΠΕIΣΘΑI
    KΑI ΛΕΓΕIN ΑΥTΩ
    ΕIΣ KΑTΑ ΕIΣ MHTI ΕΓΩ
    KΑI
    ΑΛΛOΣ MHTI ΕΓΩ

    They began to be sorrowful,
    and to say to him
    one by one, "Not I?"
    and another, "Not I?"

    Now you knew no Alexandrian Editor would let this stand. It would just go against every editing impulse he spent his whole life learning. And how could textual critics and modern versions do otherwise?


    Mark 14:68

    O ΔΕ HΡNHΣΑTO ΛΕΓΩN
    OΥTΕ OIΔΑ OΥTΕ ΕΠIΣTΑMΑI ΣΥ TI ΛΕΓΕIΣ
    KΑI ΕΞHΛΘΕN ΕΞΩ ΕIΣ TO ΠΡOΑΥΛION
    KΑI ΑΛΕKTΩΡ ΕΦΩNHΣΕN
    KΑI H ΠΑIΔIΣKH IΔOΥΣΑ ΑΥTON

    But he denied it, saying,
    "I neither know nor understand what you mean."
    And he went out into the gateway,
    and the **** crowed.
    And
    the maid saw him,...


    It seems unreasonable to think even an inexperienced Alexandrian scribe doesn't know what a **** is, and so find himself compelled to expunge the foreigner. But can any modern Bible editor/translator even hope to present a credible argument that this line was not an original part of Mark's Gospel? Please.

    Well, that's nearly ten examples found just by a brief glance over the UBS critical text, and using their own footnotes. What are the editors of modern versions thinking?


    Note that none of these examples can be interpreted as 'interpolations' by any rational argument. They cannot be 'scribal glosses' accidentally copied into the text from the margin, nor can they be deliberate edits, for none of them add any theological, apologetic, dialectic, or doctrinal content at all to any of the passages. They cannot be imaginative inventions or elaborations of the texts in which they are found, nor can they be remotely construed as 'harmonizations' either to the immediate context or Synoptic parallel passages. One will look in vain for any better explanation than simple haplography here, and this would go for about 200 such cases sprinkled throughout the New Testament.

    The 19th century naive and mechanical application of the Textual Rule of Griesbach, "Prefer the Shorter Reading" is simply nonsense in these cases.

    There is no plainer case for an error than a blatant haplography.
     
  3. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    Haplography in Luke


    Luke 4:5 (homoioteleuton: on, ...on, )

    KΑI ΑNΑΓΑΓΩN ΑΥTON
    O ΔIΑΒOΛOΣ ΕIΣ OΡOΣ ΥΨHΛON
    ΕΔΕIΞΕN ΑΥTΩ ΠΑΣΑΣ TΑΣ
    ΒΑΣIΛΕIΑΣ THΣ OIKOΥMΕNHΣ
    ΕN ΣTIΓMH XΡONOΥ

    And [the devil] took him up,
    into a high mountain,
    [and] showed him all the
    kingdoms of the world
    in a moment of time...


    Luke 5:38-39 (homoioarcton: kai..., kai... )

    ΑΛΛΑ OINON NΕON ΕIΣ
    ΑΣKOΥΣ KΑINOΥΣ ΒΛHTΕON
    KΑI ΑMΦOTΕΡOI ΣΥNTHΡOΥNTΑI
    KΑI OΥΔΕIΣ ΠIΩN ΠΑΛΑION ΘΕΛΕI
    NΕON ...

    But new wine must be
    put into fresh wineskins,
    and both are preserved;
    And no one after drinking old wine
    desires new;...


    Luke 9:55-56:
    'and said, Ye know not what manner of spirit

    ye are of: For the Son of Man has come not
    to destroy men's lives, but to save them.' (homoioarcton: kai..., kai... )

    Luke 12:39 "he would have watched and" (homoioteleuton: kai, ...kai, )

    Luke 17:9 "him?! I think not!" (homoioarcton: ou.., ou.. )

    Luke 17:24 "in His day" (homoioteleuton: anthropou, ...autou, )

    Luke 19:45 "therein and them that bought" (homoioteleuton: ...ountaV, ...ontaV)

    Luke 22:68 "Me, nor let Me go" (homoioteleuton:...qhte, ...shte)

    Luke 23:23 "and of the chief priests" (homoioteleuton:...wn, ...wn)

    Luke 24:42 "and of an honeycomb" (homoioarcton: kai..., kai...)

    Nor can these 'oversights' by the UBS editors be in any way accidental. In fact, (besides leaving out footnotes entirely sometimes), the critical apparatus has been encumbered in order to actually DISGUISE these cases of Haplography, so that they are more difficult to spot: The editors sytematically include the previous word of every omitted portion (needlessly), making it more difficult to see exactly what was left out, and why, because the similar endings and beginnings must now be hunted down, found and compared.

    (more to follow...)


     
  4. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    I'm bumping this, to do more work on it and re-open the discussion.

    peace,
    Nazaroo
     
  5. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian

    (8) The Problem with Mark 7:19


    The Problem with this scripture is complicated by two layers of confusion.


    The first concerns the Greek text.

    While the Traditional (Majority/Received) Greek text of Mark reads as follows:
    "...παν το εχωθεν εισπορευμενον εις τον ανθρωπον
    ου δυναται αυτον κοινωσαι.
    οτι ουκ εισπορευεται αυτου την καρδιαν
    αλλ' εις την κοιλιαν,
    και εις τον αφεδρωμα εκπορευεται,
    καθαριζον παντα τα βρωματα."

    The Hort/Nestle/UBS text however, reads καθαριζων, ('[he was] purifying'), thus ending the quotation after εκπορευεται, and setting off the last phrase as Mark's explanation in the narrative (rather than a continuation of Jesus' speech). This reading is only supported by three manuscripts, Codex Sinaiticus (Aleph), Vaticanus (B), and Alexandrinus (A), against the entire corpus of thousands of other MSS.
    "...παν το εχωθεν εισπορευμενον εις τον ανθρωπον
    ου δυναται αυτον κοινωσαι.
    οτι ουκ εισπορευεται αυτου την καρδιαν
    αλλ' εις την κοιλιαν,
    και εις τον αφεδρωμα εκπορευεται."
    - καθαριζων παντα τα βρωματα.

    What is the significance of the change? It represents a stage in the Romanization (Gentilizing) of the New Testament, in which early editors tried to remove the embarrassing "Jewish" elements and downplay the Jewish origins and teachings of Jesus and the Apostles, in the process of making Christianity the state religion of the Roman Empire.

    We can see the significant impact of the alteration of a single letter in one word in the resulting translation:

    The Traditional text reads:
    "...everything from outside entering into the man
    is not able to make him 'common';
    because it doesn't enter into his heart,
    but into the intestine,
    and into the toilet passes,
    purifying [the man] of all the foods..."
    The Traditional text is straightforward, and simply states the obvious, that even if food temporarily enters a man, it also leaves again, restoring a man's purity (e.g. through fasting). There is no "magical" meaning attached to Jesus' words, nor is it needed, in order to make sense of the teaching.


    The UBS text reads:
    "...everything from outside entering into the man
    is not able to make him 'common';
    because it doesn't enter into his heart,
    but into the intestine,
    and into the toilet passes."
    - [he was ] purifying all foods...
    Naturally, all 'modern' versions, based on these 4th century Roman heavily edited ecclesiastical texts make Mark say in the narrative that Jesus had "declared all foods clean".

    But this not only rests on shakey textual ground, but it rests also on a super-imposed meaning based on Roman Catholic popular teaching.

    When we look at the context, the correct reading is even clearer.

    (1) Jesus lived as a law-abiding Jew during His public ministry.

    (2) Had Jesus and His disciples been actually breaking the Jewish Food Laws, the Pharisees would hardly have quibbled about hand-washing, but would have accused Him (as they later did) of breaking with Jewish Law (Torah).

    But the worst the Pharisees can observe is that some of Jesus' disciples forgot to wash their hands.

    (3) Had Jesus taught that "all foods were clean" during His public ministry, all the Apostles would have long known of it, and Peter would have no need of any "vision" in Acts to clarify things.

    (4) Nor would the Apostles in council have needed to review the matter and issue a simplified set of food-laws for Gentiles, if Jesus had taught that JEWS did not need to keep the Food Laws.

    This is just another case of 19th century textual critics running after and idolizing a handful of 4th century manuscripts over and against the traditional text of the New Testament used by Christians for a thousand years.


    Mark 7:19 is a good example of what happens when Protestants goof off.



    peace
    Nazaroo
     
  6. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    Mr.Scrivener has kindly formatted my posts here into an easy to browse webpage on our PA website here:

    UBS Gaffs


    I intend to add more examples soon.

    peace
    Nazaroo
     
  7. Catherineanne

    Catherineanne Well-Known Member

    +4,395
    United Kingdom
    Anglican
    Widowed
    Thanks for all that information, N. How did you find these?

    I find the whole subject very interesting. I would say, however, that I have always believed that the Lord followed Jewish food laws, as far as any other first century rabbi would have done, and that this is pretty well understood in mainstream Christian thinking.
     
  8. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    I quite agree with you. To be a plausible historical teacher in ancient Israel, Jesus would have to have kept the basic food laws.

    Had Jesus not done so, the Pharisees would hardly have faulted him and his disciples for not washing their hands. They would have instead condemned him for trying to change the customs of the Jewish people, as they did Paul (falsely).

    peace
    Nazaroo
     
  9. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    We have added another 9 examples of Haplography in John, and begun to examine Matthew, and put it in a webpage here:

    UBS Gaffs2

    I will post a few examples here also.

    peace
    Nazaroo
     
  10. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    John 6:11 (traditional text)


    ελαβεν δε τους αρτους ο IΣ [Jesus]
    και ευχαριστησας διεδωκεν

    τοις μαθηταις οι δε μαθηται
    τοις ανακειμενοις ομοιως
    και εκ των οψαριων οσον
    ηθελον...


    And Jesus took the loaves;
    and when he had given thanks, he gave

    to the disciples, and the disciples
    to them that were set down;
    and likewise of the fishes as much
    as they wished.

    ______________________________________________
    INCLUDE LINE: א(Corr.2), D, Δ Θ ψ, f13, 1071, Maj, Latin: b, d, e, j, Sy-S, ac2, Bo(mss) Byz, Maj (Majority of all continuous MSS), 157, 1424 Lect,

    OMIT: P28(3rd CE), P66, P75, 01*, A, B, L, N, W, Π, 063, 0141, f1, 33, 565, 579, 1241, al, Lat, Sy-C, Sy-P, Sy-H/sa/bo(mss), arm, goth

    ______________________________________________

    Another classic boo-boo by the Alexandrian ancestor of Aleph/B. This one of many 'perfect' Haplography cases in John, where all the necessary features are found in the textual stream.

    Few Alexandrian correctors would have opted for the longer reading, given the lucky conciseness of the omission. But no complex series of 'mishaps' are likely to have been responsible for any proposed 'addition' here. Again the theological content is virtually non-existant.

    The usual suspects, Westcott/Hort, Nestle, UBS-2 etc. perpetuate an error we escaped from for almost 2000 years. Now every scribal blunder ever made is brought back to haunt the text, simply because it was done in Egypt/Caesarea. Again, 'modern' versions follow the UBS text, without even a footnote for the lost half-verse.

    Its another undocumented change, which sadly loses some interesting details concerning the Feeding of the 5,000.
     
  11. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    We have added new pages covering more cases of Haplography which were mistaken for original readings and followed in 'modern' versions (translations).

    More UBS Gaffes (III): Acts and Paul
    UBS Gaffs3

    More UBS Gaffes (IV): 1st Cor. 10:28
    Haplography - 1st Cor 10:28

    Kenyon on Haplography: Examples from Aleph/B
    Kenyon on Haplography

    Colwell on Haplography: Analysis of Papyri P66,45,75
    Colwell - Scribal Habits

    Also Dean Burgon on Haplography:
    Burgon on Haplography

    Finally, new information on Haplography in the Syriac Version
    Syriac PA Haplography

    These articles are a great start toward understanding handcopying of the Bible and how a few errors have crept into the modern text, through recent misunderstandings over the textual evidence.

    peace
    Nazaroo
     
  12. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    Hebrews 1:8-9 (Traditional Text)

    προς δε τον υιον
    ο θρονος σου ο θεος
    εις τον αιωνα του αιωνος
    ραβδος ευθυτητος
    η ραβδος της βασιλειας σου


    and unto the Son:
    `Thy throne, O God,
    [is] to the age of the age;
    a scepter of righteousness [is]
    the scepter of thy reign;'...


    ___________________________________________
    Exclude phrase: B 33 t vg(some mss)

    ___________________________________________
    Perhaps B.J. Wright gave the most concise description of this obvious Haplography error, recently (Dallas Seminary, 2007):

    "For centuries, the book of Hebrews has been the combat zone of many impasses and cacophonous speculations: its juncture is unstated, its author is unknown, and its destination ambiguous. Fortunately, these matters, while fascinating, are not at the viscera of the book's significance. What interests us here then, is one verse in the first chapter that possibly denotes the deity of Christ: namely, 1:8. Since the hermeneutical and exegetical issues here are beyond the scope of this paper, I will proceed by simply addressing the textual issues.

    ...

    The first textual variant is pretty straightforward: the presence or absence of του αιωνος ("and ever") after εις τον αιωνα ("forever").

    Externally, the absence of is significantly inferior with only a small handful of concentrated MSS omitting it (B 33 t vg-mss). Although it is true that scribes often expanded readings (with the apocapated reading generally being preferred), it is not the situation here for several reasons.

    First, του αιωνος is a direct quotation from the OT with both the LXX [44:7] and MT [45:7] supporting it.

    Second, this reading is supported by the best and earliest MSS (only a few omit it: B 33 t vg-mss).

    Third, every time [ Heb: 'oulam od' ] occurs in the OT the LXX translates it with του αιωνος (Ps 10:16; 21:5; 45:7; 48:15; 52:10; 104:5). Putting it another way, if one accepts the shorter Greek rendering of the OT quote in Heb. 1:8 (simply by εις τον αιωνα ), and does not include του αιωνος, it goes against all the ancient versions.

    Fourth, faulty eyesight could easily explain the omission."

    - Brian James Wright, "Jesus as Theos: Scriptural Fact or Scribal Fantasy?" (2007)

    Wright adds a footnote: 'For this and other possibilities see E.C. Colwell, Studies in the Methodology in Textual Criticism of the NT (Eerdmans, 1969), 106-124. , Cf. J. R. Royse, "Scribal Tendencies in the Transmission of the Text of the NT"; J.R. Royse, "The Treatment of Scribal Leaps in Metzger's Textual Commentary", NTS 29 (1983) 539-51.'

    It only needs to be added that Codex Sinaiticus also carries its own unique set of absurd variants in the book of Hebrews, and consequently its omissions also have all the appearance of scribal boners due to negligence and fatigue. (see B.B. Warfield's enlightening list of Aleph's boners in Hebrews).
     
  13. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
  14. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
    We have now opened up a blogsite for these variant verses, here:

    homoioteleuton

    enjoy!
    Nazaroo
     
  15. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
  16. Nazaroo

    Nazaroo Joseph is still alive! (Gen 45.26)

    +64
    Christian
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