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Who Wrote The Gospel Attributed to Matthew?

Discussion in 'Controversial Christian Theology' started by JWO, Oct 11, 2017.

  1. JWO

    JWO FaithWithoutWorks IsDead

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    The language of the Roman Empire was Greek

    "Grieca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus, Latina suis finibus, exiguis sane, continentur."--Cicero, Pro Arch. Poet. § 23

    "Ever since the times of Alexander the Great, the Jews had emigrated in great numbers from Palestine to Greek countries. In these lands, even the more educated among them, such as Philo, forgot their mother-tongue: and this happened all the more readily, since, from their sacred books having been translated into the Greek language, provision had thus been made even for their religious necessities. At the same time, these Grecian Jews, known as Hellenists, remained in unbroken communion with their native country. Jerusalem was always regarded by the Jews as their capital: the Sanhedrim of that city was in all religious points their highest authority; and thousands of Greek-speaking Jews travelled annually to Palestine, in order that, in the national sanctuary at Jerusalem, they might present their supplications, and pay their vows to the Lord who dwelleth in Zion."
    --Credner, Einleitung, § 75. Winer, in his Realworterbuch

    Our hypothesis, then, is simply this — The Lord Jesus Christ SPOKE in Greek, and the Evangelists independently narrated His actions, and reported His discourses, IN THE SAME LANGUAGE which He had Himself employed.
    --Roberts, Inquiry into the Original Language of St. Matthew's Gospel


    Hebrew Gospel of Matthew, in history…

    “Matthew also issued a written Gospel among the Hebrews in their own dialect, while Peter and Paul were preaching at Rome, and laying the foundations of the Church. After their departure, Mark, the disciple and interpreter of Peter, did also hand down to us in writing what had been preached by Peter. Luke also, the companion of Paul, recorded in a book the Gospel preached by him. Afterwards, John, the disciple of the Lord, who also had leaned upon His breast, did himself publish a Gospel during his residence at Ephesus in Asia.”--Iranaeus, Against Heresies, 3.1.1


    Peter, quoted by Mark

    “And the elder used to say this, Mark became Peter’s interpreter and wrote accurately all that he remembered, not, indeed, in order, of the things said and done by the Lord. For he had not heard the Lord, nor had followed him, but later on, followed Peter, who used to give teaching as necessity demanded but not making, as it were, an arrangement of the Lord’s oracles, so that Mark did nothing wrong in thus writing down single points as he remembered them. For to one thing he gave attention, to leave out nothing of what he had heard and to make no false statements in them.”
    --Papias of Hierapolis

    “And so great a joy of light shone upon the minds of the hearers of Peter that they were not satisfied with merely a single hearing or with the unwritten teaching of the divine gospel, but with all sorts of entreaties they besought Mark, who was a follower of Peter and whose gospel is extant, to leave behind with them in writing a record of the teaching passed on to them orally; and they did not cease until they had prevailed upon the man and so became responsible for the Scripture for reading in the churches.”
    --Clement of Alexandria

    John and Matthew first instil faith into us; while of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards. These all start with the same principles of the faith, so far as relates to the one only God the Creator and His Christ, how that He was born of the Virgin, and came to fulfil the law and the prophets.
    --Tertullian, Against Marcion


    Internal Evidence

    Matthew 4:18 And Jesus, walking by the sea of Galilee, saw two brethren, Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother, casting a net into the sea: for they were fishers. 19 And He saith unto them, Follow Me, and I will make you fishers of men. 20 And they straightway left their nets, and followed Him.
    21 And going on from thence, He saw other two brethren, James the son of Zebedee, and John his brother, in a ship with Zebedee their father, mending their nets; and He called them. 22 And they immediately left the ship and their father, and followed Him. 23 And Jesus went about all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues, and preaching the gospel of the kingdom, and healing all manner of sickness and all manner of disease among the people.

    Matthew 17:1 And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into an high mountain apart, 2 And was transfigured before them: and His face did shine as the sun, and His raiment was white as the light. 3 And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him.
    4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, and one for Moses, and one for Elias. 5 While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is My beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye Him.

    Matthew 26:36 Then cometh Jesus with them unto a place called Gethsemane, and saith unto the disciples, Sit ye here, while I go and pray yonder. 37 And He took with Him Peter and the two sons of Zebedee, and began to be sorrowful and very heavy. 40 And he cometh unto the disciples, and findeth them asleep, and saith unto Peter, What, could ye not watch with me one hour? 51 And, behold, one of them which were with Jesus stretched out his hand, and drew his sword, and struck a servant of the high priest's, and smote off his ear. 52 Then said Jesus unto him, Put up again thy sword into his place: for all they that take the sword shall perish with the sword. ... 28:16 Then the eleven disciples went away into Galilee, into a mountain where Jesus had appointed them. 17 And when they saw Him, they worshipped Him: but some doubted. 18 And Jesus came and spake unto them, saying, All power is given unto Me in heaven and in earth. 19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost: 20 Teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you: and, lo, I am with you alway, even unto the end of the world.


    What John Says

    John 1:40 One of the two which heard John speak, and followed him, was Andrew, Simon Peter's brother. 41 He first findeth his own brother Simon, and saith unto him, We have found the Messias, which is, being interpreted, the Christ. 42 And he brought him to Jesus. And when Jesus beheld him, he said, Thou art Simon the son of Jona: thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpretation, A stone. 43 The day following Jesus would go forth into Galilee, and findeth Philip, and saith unto him, Follow me. 44 Now Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of Andrew and Peter. 45 Philip findeth Nathanael, and saith unto him, We have found Him, of whom Moses in the law, and the prophets, did write, Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Joseph.

    John 13:30 He then having received the sop went immediately out: and it was night. 31 Therefore, when he was gone out, Jesus said, Now is the Son of man glorified, and God is glorified in Him. … 15:26 But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, He shall testify of Me: 27 And ye also shall bear witness, because ye have been with Me from the beginning. … 18:1 When Jesus had spoken these words, He went forth with His disciples over the brook Cedron, where was a garden, into the which He entered, and His disciples. … 18:15 And Simon Peter followed Jesus, and so did another disciple: that disciple was known unto the high priest, and went in with Jesus into the palace of the high priest. … 19:25 Now there stood by the cross of Jesus his mother, and his mother's sister, Mary the wife of Cleophas, and Mary Magdalene. 26 When Jesus therefore saw His mother, and the disciple standing by, whom He loved, He saith unto His mother, Woman, behold thy son! 27 Then saith He to the disciple, Behold thy mother! And from that hour that disciple took her unto his own home. … 20:4 So they ran both together: and the other disciple did outrun Peter, and came first to the sepulchre. 19 Then the same day at evening, being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled for fear of the Jews, came Jesus and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. 20 And when He had so said, He shewed unto them His hands and His side. Then were the disciples glad, when they saw the Lord. 21 Then said Jesus to them again, Peace be unto you: as My Father hath sent me, even so send I you. 22 And when He had said this, He breathed on them, and saith unto them, Receive ye the Holy Ghost:


    What Peter Taught in Rome

    Mark 1:29 And forthwith, when they were come out of the synagogue, they entered into the house of Simon and Andrew, with James and John.

    Mark 13:3 And as He sat upon the mount of Olives over against the temple, Peter and James and John and Andrew asked Him privately, 4 Tell us, when shall these things be? and what shall be the sign when all these things shall be fulfilled?

    ______________________
    If Matthew doesn't show up until Chapter 9 in his own book, and since Matthew wasn't at the Transfiguration, the Garden prayer session, or the Trial and shortly after... then why do people think Matthew is the author?
    If Matthew is said to have written a Hebrew version, what made the canonists decide that Matthew had written two versions... one in the world-wide Greek, and another in Hebrew? Why didn't they look at Peter who's preaching in Rome had attracted the attention of Mark? Why did they instead say that Matthew copied from Mark... who wasn't there and wasn't even a hand-picked Apostle?
    Jesus says that they would testify of Him because they were with Him from the beginning. And Jesus told Peter to feed His sheep three times in a row. Would Peter have forgotten, or have ever became careless again? Would Peter have been any less literate than John who grew up as a fisherman as well?
    And why on earth would Peter have entrusted others to write down even one single word that Jesus had taught the 11? Doesn't it make more sense to step outside of the box and say that Matthew wrote in Hebrew, but that Peter almost had to have been the one who wrote the gospel attributed to Matthew?
     
    Last edited: Oct 11, 2017
  2. ViaCrucis

    ViaCrucis Evangelical Catholic of the Augsburg Confession

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    According to Papias and some of the other earliest fathers, St. Matthew had originally recorded the sayings (logion) of the Lord in Aramaic, but later wrote the gospel which bears his name in Greek.

    Most likely the Gospel according to St. Matthew wasn't written by St. Matthew, it is, like the other canonical Gospels, anonymous; tradition having assigned a name here.

    I'm not sure that this is a particularly big deal one way or the other; the importance of the Four Gospels isn't on who wrote them, but on their universal acceptance in the Church since almost the beginning.

    -CryptoLutheran
     
  3. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    Amein!
    It is Breathed by YHWH , Guarded by Him, as He Pleases.

    The divisive arguments are among the ones it is written of , to be avoided, resulting in harm instead of good if engaged in...
     
  4. JWO

    JWO FaithWithoutWorks IsDead

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    Good, then we know not to trust Papias.

    Even the names of Luke and Mark don't matter, since they aren't pretending to be hand-picked by Jesus.

    But the others certainly were told to be the apostles to the gentiles.

    John is the only one who could have written the Gospel according to John... which is tied by its language to 1 John and the writer of Revelation. John is not left hanging.

    And given the internal evidence, neither is the Gospel ascribed to Matthew. There were only two people at the tomb to have written of it, and their stories complement, not copy each other. For instance, the fact that Peter fell asleep is the reason why only John wrote the prayers in the Garden.

    It's imposible for me to believe that Peter, who kept the law, would have wanted anything to do with a follower of someone who claims that both the law and the husband of the law are dead.
     
  5. SkyWriting

    SkyWriting Berean through and through Supporter

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    Likely He spoke in a few languages, and there is evidence that some was in Aramaic because it is a good language for memorizing and repeating. Jesus an early rapper.
     
  6. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    Paul and Peter both are called, chosen, set apart Apostles of the Gospel of Jesus/ Salvation/
    sent messengers of YHWH and faithful testimonies of Jesus and all of His Word and YHWH'S Plan.

    This site exposes the Jesus Words Only conspiracy to remove Paul :

    http://www.equip.org/article/robbing-paul-pay-peter-james/

    excerpts:
    "While we cannot in this space deal with the full range of JWO arguments, we can defuse many of them by dealing with two of their most important misrepresentations. One is the alleged conflict between the message of Paul and that of James, as reflected in their respective epistles, and the other is their interpretation of the controversy between Paul and Peter recorded in Galatians 2."

    "Seeking to disconnect Paul from the rest of the New Testament, and the early Christian church, a movement designated by the slogan, “Jesus’ Words Only” (JWO) argues that Paul was a turncoat whose letters were inappropriately inserted into the New Testament canon. Strangely, proponents of this view may also argue that God ensured that other parts of the Bible, including the Old Testament, warned us in various coded ways that Paul would appear."
     
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  7. redleghunter

    redleghunter Abide Boldly! Supporter

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    I think this is a false premise. Matthew was among the 12 for most of the ministry of Jesus Christ. What disqualifies Matthew from learning of these events later as we see Luke doing in his careful examination?
     
  8. redleghunter

    redleghunter Abide Boldly! Supporter

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    The premise of the early fathers was that the 4 gospels were of apostolic origin. Which is why they were accepted. Not the other way around.
     
  9. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    Remember Scripture is all "Breathed by YHWH", not dependent at all on what men knew themselves or of themselves apart as if not in union with YHWH and/or in JESUS. YHWH moved upon them, and within them, as He Pleased, and Guards His Own Word , as written, always.
     
  10. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    Scripture was accepted before and during and after the ecf,
    without needing the input or acceptance by them.

    Throughout all the centuries YHWH has called and chosen and kept for Himself a remnant , and YHWH is responsible for all of the keeping and guarding of His Word as He Says throughout Scripture.
     
  11. redleghunter

    redleghunter Abide Boldly! Supporter

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    Yes and it turns out in most cases God used human eyewitnesses to the events. That is what I was getting at.
     
  12. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    As written "Those things we both saw and heard, we report" ....
    But the authority, the certainy, the validity of YHWH'S WORD is not dependent on man's estimations or appraisals - (natural man cannot even a little comprehend the spiritual)

    - while the spiritual man (born again, called and chosen and set apart by YHWH for Himself) appraises everything and is appraised by no one.....
     
  13. gordonhooker

    gordonhooker Franciscan tssf Supporter

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    Thanks for that link it was very informative...

    This particular part of the forum does tend attract some interesting people and ideas, I wonder what the Pastafarians would have to say about the JWO's.... :)
     
  14. yeshuaslavejeff

    yeshuaslavejeff simple truth, martyr, disciple of Yahshua

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    I only noticed the cult errors rejecting YHWH'S SCRIPTURE and rejecting YHWH'S Apostles/messengers after the recent postings,
    but
    it was exposed frequently in the past 15 years in several other sections of this forum,
    and also
    online many times by various groups.
     
  15. Ron Gurley

    Ron Gurley What U See is What U Get!

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    Most Scholars:
    1. Matthew was a Jewish tax collector.

    Matthew 9:9[ Matthew Called ]
    As Jesus went on from there, He saw a man called Matthew, sitting in the tax collector’s booth; and He said to him, “Follow Me!” And he got up and followed Him....SEE ALSO:Matthew 10:3

    2. He spoke Hebrew and probably Aramaic, resident of Galilee?

    Matthew 4:23,25[ Ministry in Galilee ]
    Jesus was going throughout all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues and proclaiming the "gospel of the kingdom", and healing every kind of disease and every kind of sickness among the people...
    Large crowds followed Him from Galilee and the Decapolis and Jerusalem and Judea and from beyond the Jordan.

    3. He was one of the final 11 chosen/appointed apostles/messengers.

    Acts 1:13

    4. Learned, he probably could dictate/write Greek and Latin?

    5. His intended audience were Jews, and he emphasized Jesus' blood/legal lines and the deeds/history that that pointed to the Divine Messiah as their awaited King.

    6. He had a MSS of John Mark's/Peter's first written gospel at hand?

    7. He was the "author" of the Gospel of Matthew, inspired and superintended by God the Holy Spirit.

    Other views:

    BibleGateway.com Dictionaries: MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO

    Gospel of Matthew

    Introduction to Matthew's Gospel | NTGateway
     
  16. JWO

    JWO FaithWithoutWorks IsDead

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    Luke saying his examination was careful has no more support than does the claim of an anti-law person saying he followed the Jesus who says He never came to destroy the law.

    Luke's compilation differs in several crucial areas... even moreso, if he wrote Acts.
     
  17. JWO

    JWO FaithWithoutWorks IsDead

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    Luke and Mark never claimed to be apostles. Unless the word apostle meant something different then, than it does today. And the fact is that the so-called fathers seems to be yet another term which is misapplied. If you mean Rome's council that determined what was and was not canon, then you need to go back to the time before those who disagreed were being gotten rid of by the state at the behest of the enemies of Jesus.
     
  18. JWO

    JWO FaithWithoutWorks IsDead

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    And Homer would tell you that Greek is the best language in which to memorize even the longest of items. Jesus spoke a few words in Aramaic, at those times when that language was necessary. The rest of the time, Jesus is found quoting from the Greek OT.
     
  19. redleghunter

    redleghunter Abide Boldly! Supporter

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    Assertions. I hope you have some evidence to back this up.
     
  20. redleghunter

    redleghunter Abide Boldly! Supporter

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    You should revisit the post 1st Century AD church history.

    You quoted from Irenaeus who was a 2nd century Christian theologian and bishop (overseer). He is a source you used in the OP confirming the attribution of the 4 Gospel accounts.

    No Mark was most likely not an apostle, however, he did accompany apostles and specifically Peter in his later years. Thus penning the Gospel of Mark with the eyewitness accounts of Peter.

    Good Reasons to Believe Peter Is the Source of Mark's Gospel | Cold Case Christianity

    The early church theologians were unanimous that Luke wrote the Gospel bearing his name and Acts:

    http://crossexamined.org/wrote-gospel-luke-acts/

    Did Luke Write the Gospel of Luke? | ReasonableTheology.org

    For more detailed analysis of views of modern scholars on the authorship and dating of the Gospels (and remainder of the NT):

    A Chronological Order of The New Testament Books
     
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