(Abbr. mine. "ANA"=anorexia,BN=bulimia nervosa,ED=eating disorder,pers.=personality,def=deficiency,decr.=decreased,dis.=disorder)
Ask me for the many sources.
"Usually EDs develop from a combination of contributing factors."
NEUROLOGICAL/BIOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
Zinc deficiency. "Most ANA's and bulimics were zinc-def..According to the release, a five-yr. study showed an eightyfive percent remission rate for ANA patients given zinc supplements. "Zinc def. has also been detected in ppl w/ ANA or BN in most,nineteen, twenty though not all, twentyone studies. In addition, some of the manifestations of zinc def., such as reduced appetite, taste, and smell r similar to symptoms observed in some cases of ANA or BN."When corrected w/ zinc therapy in ANA's,"the resulting improvement in brain functioning creates an improvement in ANA symptoms""What is interesting is that such an inexpensive and widely-available mineral shows promise, by itself, in establishing better brain functioning in this group." NOTE:"It's important to check w/ ur doctor before beginning a course of zinc therapy, however, because too much zinc can result in other problems in brain funct..Med. assistance will help regu. zinc at the proper level for u."
Problems w/ the cingulate system; obsessive compulsive spectrum disorder.The functions of the cingulate system are (see the book Change Your Brain, Change Your Life, Dr.Amen):
--Ability to shift attention; adapt to change+deal successfully w/ new problems(cognitive flexibility); see options; go w/ the flow; cooperate
--Movement from idea to idea
--Getting stuck in inneffective behavior patterns
Problems w/ the cingulate system:
--Obsessive compulsive Spectrum Disorders:"There is a group of dis. that have been recently labeled obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders.Ppl w/ these dis. get stuck on unwanted, repetitive thoughts and cannot get them out of their minds unless they act in a specific manner. According to psychiatrist Ronald Pies, postulated OCD spectrum dis. include (SEE BOOK FOR MORE):
--compulsive shopping: Repetitive thoughts:"I need to buy this one thing! I need to buy this one thing! I need to buy this one thing!"
--body dysmorphic disorder (feeling that part of the body is excessively ugly)
--EDs, such as ANA and BN:In EDs there r "repetitive thoughts that significantly interfere w/ behavior": ' despite rational evidence to the contrary" "Twenty-yr.-old Leslie suffered from BN for three yrs. She got to the point where she was using laxatives several times a day in incr. doses, along w/ exercising for two or three hours a day. Her binges were also becoming more frequent. When she sought treatment, she felt totally out of control. During her initial evaluation, she said she knew her behavior was abnormal and she hated it. However, when she got the urge to eat, she felt she had to give in to it, and afterward she could not get the thoughts of being overweight out of her head.She had a maternal aunt who had been diagnosed w/ OCD.Leslie's brain SPECT study revealed increased activity in the cingulate system along w/ increased activity in her right basal ganglia. [POSSIBLE TREATMENT] With this information, she was placed in an EDs group and given Prozac (an antiobsessive antidepressant). Over the next three months, she improved markedly, to the point where she was eating normally, not taking any laxatives at all,and exercising less than an hour a day...In nineteenninetytwo the Prozac BN Collaborative Study Groupreported that daily therapy w/ sixty milligrams of Prozac significantly decr. the frequency of binge eating and self-induced vomiting. In the med. literature Prozac has been reported to decrease activity in the cingulate in obsessive-compulsive patients.
--Holding onto hurts from the past
--Getting stuck on thoughts (obsessions)
--Getting stuck on behaviors (compulsions)
--Addictive behaviors (alcohol or drug abuse, EDs)
--SEE BOOK FOR MORE
Distorted body image from brain function. Do u see urself as fat? No matter how much weight u lose?R others telling u u aren't? R u at an unhealthy weight for ur height/age? It could be a distorted body image, like it was for me. I looked in the mirror and saw someone fat, when in reality, I was thin and unhealthy.POSSIBLE TREATMENT:Zinc worked magically for me and has had proven results in ANAs. I started taking Zinc, given to me by my psych., and the image distortion literally disappeared--along w/ the thoughts/feelings/behaviors.It should help w/ the "image distortion" my psychiatrist had said.
Abnormal neurotransmitter levels, hormone imbalances, chem. imbalances in the brain--including high levels of cortisol+low serotonin and norepinephrine levels."A wealth of research suggests that several different neurotransmitters r involved in EDs."...An aberrant neurotransmitter system could affect the I-function, and therefore self perception.Possible reasons for the faulty neurotransmitter system range from genetic to environmental influences."Brain chem. also appears to play a significant role. Ppl w/ ANA tend to have high levels of cortisol, the brain hormone most related to stress, and decr. levels of serotonin and norepinephrine, which r associated w/ feelings of well-being."
Altered levels of dopamine."New research suggests that women who develop ANA may have altered levels of dopamine in their brains, [which can] cause hyperactivity,repetition of behavior (such as food restriction), and anhedonia (a decr. sense of pleasure).This neurotransmitter also affects reward-motivated behavior. Improper levels of dopamine may explain why ANAs feel intensely driven to lose weight yet feel little pleasure in shedding pounds."
Imbalances in the neurotransmitter serotonin."Serotonin is a neurotransmitter used in nerve cell communication within the brain.[It] plays an important role in controlling anxiety levels, depression, impulse control. Perceptions of hunger, appetite r also influenced by serotonin." "Serotonin is..known to affect a wide range of mental dis., including ANA, ADHD, anxiety, bipolar dis., borderline pers. dis., depression, OCD, all of which have been linked to BN.""Some research has shown that an insufficiency of..serotonin can cause depression and BN at the same time. This is probably why many bulimics also suffer from depression." Researchers in London found ANAs-->overproduction of serotonin-->continual state of acute stress, anxiety."Reducing their intake of calories to starv. level, which in turn leads to decr. levels of serotonin in the brain, may result in a sense of calmness."Researchers have also noted that abnormal eating behaviors+the resulting changes in the body-->disruption in serotonin levels,"thus contributing to an already existing problem. Abnorm. in serotonin levels can lead to depression and anxiety, both for under-eaters and over-eaters, as well as other mental dis..Studies also suggest that there r genetic predispositions to serotonin disruptions that appear to run in some families.""Abnormal serotonin levels were accompanied by a higher rate of negative moods, perfectionism, exactness—all pers. traits associated w/ BN." Low serotonin=depression. Binge eating my increase serotonin relieving depression+producing feelings of calmness and well being. It may raise serotonin levels too high, causing intense anxiety and agitation.The bulimic associates this anxiety w/ food consumption, and possible weight gain. To prevent weight gain, the bulimic purges. Purging lowers serotonin levels, causing depression symptoms and restarting the cycle of BN behavior."Bulimics "often crave (and gorge) on foods rich in carbs. The body converts sugars from carbs, through a multi-step process, into tryptophan. Tryptophan is then used to create serotonin, which is partially responsible for the regulation of appetite, creating a sense of satiation, and regulating emotions and judgment.Thus, the binge behavior of bulimics may also be a response to low serotonin levels in the brain. A research team at the U of Pittsburgh found that individuals successfully treated for BN still had abn. low serotonin levels."POSSIBLE TREATMENT:"The successful treatment of BN w/ Prozac (typically used for depression), which acts to increase the amount of serotonin in the brain, is additional evidence of the importance of this brain chemical.""Some antidepressants that work on restoring the level of serotonin in the brain can help some sufferers stop their binges." If u've been on antidepressants and stopped, look for other suppliments that substitute the loss of serotonin. U can get capsules of serotonin in health food stores."Taking serotonin on its own won't automatically stop BN, as it is a much deeper psychological problem that a single chem. imbalance:but it would not hurt either."
Abnormalities in the structure or activity of the hypothalamus.The hypothalamus is "a brain structure responsible for regulating eating behaviors. Studies suggest that the hypothalamus of bulimics may not trigger a normal satiation (feeling full or finished) response. So, even after a meal, these individuals don't feel full."
Elevated opioid levels and malfunction of the I-function."A few sources suggested that ANAs r addicted to fasting..because of the chem. changes brought on by starv..The opioids, enkephalins, endorphins r found to be at elevated levels in the spinal fluid of patients w/ ANA. It is unclear however, whether or not the starving was caused by, or was the cause of, these elevated opioid levels. Some studies have found that drugs which inhibit the functioning of these opioids cause ANA patients to gain weight. (#) Unusual hormones levels may also effect the I-function, causing it to once again portray an unhealthy body image to the self."POSSIBLE TREATMENT."Artificial manipulation of theses targeted hormones may help in the treatment..by bringing the I-function's self image back into consort w/ reality."
Anxiety disorders.There r good medicines for anxiety dis., as well as natural solutions (like Lumina, which I take; it helps alot). Also therapy and the book Change Your Brain, Change Your Life.
Agitation from starv. "Once malnutrition reaches an advanced state, the brain becomes so preoccupied w/ correcting the nutritional def., a hyperactivity starv. response can ensue, making the patient very agitated+wanting to exercise to alleviate the agitation (see starv. response)."
Biological inheritance. EDs "r often biologically inherited+tend to run in families. Recent research suggests that inherited biological+genetic factors contribute approximately fifty six% of the risk for developing an ED." Ppl w/ "a mother or a sister w/ ANA r approximately twelve times more likely to develop ANA+fourtimes more likely to develop BN than [those] w/o a family history of these dis.."Research suggests that a genetic predisposition to ANA may run in families.If a girl has a sibling w/ ANA, she is ten to twenty times more likely than the general pop. to develop ANA herself.""The pers. traits which increase the risk of EDs r partly hereditary. Addictive problems or affective dis. (depression, etc.) r more common among relatives."
"Some of the pers. traits involved r:
A tendency to please others and a low ability to assert one's own needs; a need to reduce unsettling feelings of anxiety, depression, low self-confidence; perfectionism; problems w/ impulse control."
Perfectionism,overachievement. "Ppl w/ ANA r often perfectionists and overachievers. They're the 'good' daughters and sons who do what they're told, excel in everything they do, and focus on pleasing others." "They don't accept half-measures, and when they get the idea of doing something they either do it completely or not at all.
Addiction. "Overeating and fasting can stimulate the reward centre in the brain. EDs therefore function [like] alcoholism and drug addiction. The same pers. traits which increase the risk of alcohism and drug addiction also increase the risk of EDs."
UPBRINGING AND CHILDHOOD
The ability to distinguish between hunger, satisfaction, other feelings. This "is learned when one is very young. Faulty upbringing can interfere w/ this..Many ppl w/ EDs "r not aware of their physical feelings of hunger+satisfaction."So "they lack a natural control of their eating. Such ppl will easier be pulled into EDs, where they use eating to conceal feelings+escape from constructive problem solutions."
Parents who r overweight and have an exaggerated interest in body shape, family demands and insecure family circumstances.
"Strict+cold parental attitude and luck of showing love to children from parents."
Physical, emotional, and/or sexual abuse/trauma.
UNREALISTIC IDEALS OF BODY IMAGE
An unnatural slim ideal. "EDs often arise when a person tries to reduce to an abnormally low weight." "EDs r more common among women+those who r affected by social attitudes and body ideals and who also lack the ability of following their own feelings+needs."
Social attitudes towards body image+losing weight.
The influence of the media creating a need for thinness.
LACK OF SELF ESTEEM, FEELING OF WORTH
Self-esteem."Weight control becomes a means of overcoming...lack of self-esteem."
Feelings of worthlessness."They think they r worthless so they must try to be special."
Depression.(There r great medicinal and natural treatments for med. depression)
LIFE EVENTS/CHANGES/PROBLEMS, STRESS, ANXIETY, NEED FOR CONTROL
Fears of weight gain.
Life events/changes. "Often, the illness is triggered by a major change in the person's life.""Problems such as broken relationships, abuse, or the loss of a job can trigger the original onset of an ED."It is "a way of helping them to cope w/ the stress that they r feeling."
Need for control. "They think that they lack self-control and so they must always try to exercise strict control on everything+everybody." How much they eat (and if they eat) can be the only thing they feel they have control of in their life.
Feelings of helplessness.
An effort to resolve emotional problems."When..unable to face their feelings, define problems, resolve them effectively, [they're]more prone to become susceptible to the onset of BN."
Last edited by lifeknowingjesus; 11th November 2008 at 08:07 PM.